Live and Study Abroad in Europe:

High-quality education for students with great potential
With over 400 Nobel Laureates and about 45% of the patent applications worldwide, Europe is a natural leader in research and education. No matter what you choose to study – science, law, business and economics or humanities – you can pursue this in Europe. There are also opportunities for training that are directly connected to the industry that you intend to pursue a career in.
 
The Top-ranking universities provide a broad variety of courses and many are taught in English. Language classes at all levels are also available. The European diplomas are recognized around the world. More information about your academic options in Europe can be found on the country pages, or through a Database on Educational Exchange Programmes (DEEP). This is an initiative of the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) that contains information on courses and scholarships from thousands of universities in Europe.
 
Studying in the EU costs less than you think!
Education in Europe is considered a basic right. Efforts are taken to ensure that Europe's more than 6,000 higher education institutions are open to anyone with the appropriate qualifications. Therefore tuition fees in Europe are comparatively affordable. There are many scholarships available that can help you cover the cost of studying in Europe.
 
European higher education institutions provide a strong support to help your education
European higher education institutions will support you throughout your studies overseas. These services can include airport transfers, university orientation programmes, accommodation, mentoring, and extracurricular activities – everything that you need to help you settle into your studies and surroundings.
The EU Member States also make every effort to simplify the delivery of visas for overseas students. Online procedures are widely available and you may also get information from your local embassies on visa application procedures.
 
Europe is culturally rich and diverse!
Europe is rich in history and culture. In Europe you will discover that we speak many languages, have diverse culture and traditions. In the EU alone we have 23 official languages. Its landscapes and nature are unmatched around the world. And thanks to the provisions of Schengen Treaty, you may travel throughout most of Europe with only one visa.
 
Austria:
 
Basic Information about Austria
Located in southern Central Europe, Austria is a naturally beautiful country with pastoral landscapes, stunning mountain vistas and timeless cities steeped in history and culture.
Austria is home to over 8 million people and shares its borders with both Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The official language of Austria is German.
Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment has spawned world class artists in various art forms but most notably music. Austria has been the birthplace of many famous composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Strauss, and their works continue to inspire.
Austria's capital city of Vienna, also described as Europe’s cultural capital, ranks as one of the most attractive cities in the world and was recently ranked as the top city in Mercer’s Quality of Living survey rankings. This metropolitan city has a charm, vibrancy and flair that is unique and found nowhere else.
 
The Higher Education System
There is a wide variety of higher educational institutions in Austria. Sixteen Austrian universities offer a broad range of study options for students. If you would like to study music, theatre, film, fine arts or applied arts, the six Austrian Universities of the Arts offer their students a creative education. Since 1993, Austria also has 246 Fachhochschul-Studiengänge (degree programmes) in addition to the universities. www.fachhochschulen.at There are also Private Universities. The post-secondary sector also includes Teacher Training Colleges and Institutes, Colleges and Institutes for Training Religious Teachers, etc.
 
University level first stage (Bachelor's degree):
Bakkalaureus, Bakkalaureus (FH)

University level second stage (Master's degree):
Magister, Magister (FH), Diplom-Ingenieur, Diplom-Ingenieur (FH)

University level third stage (PhD):
Doktoratstudien

 
You can find more information on the Austrian education system (e.g. Universities’ and Fachhochschulen’ websites, and Austria’s participation in European and International Exchange Programmes) on the websites of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Science and Research www.bmwf.gv.at (the information is only available in German).
 
Scholarships
The Austrian government, private institutions and Universities offer a number of scholarships for students. Just as in some other countries, a special agency – the Austrian Exchange Service [Österreichischer Austauschdienst (ÖAD)] – was established to manage all grants for foreign students. If you are interested in studying in Austria and if you are looking for financial support, we strongly recommend that you visit this organisation’s website www.oead.ac.at where you will find all the information on available scholarships (section Study & Research in Austria – Grants Database www.oead.at). The aim of this database is to make it easier for those interested in studying in Austria as well as those providing advice in information centres to find details of existing grant programmes and to guarantee that the information about these programmes is always up to date.
 
Belgium:
 
Basic Information about Belgium
Belgium is situated in Western Europe. It is bound by France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the North Sea. The country’s topography is that of a large fertile low-lying plain. The capital of the country is Brussels. The population of the country is 10.8 million. There are two main language communities in Belgium: the Dutch-speaking Flemings in the north, and the French-speaking Walloons in the south. Brussels is officially bilingual. A third language community of German-speakers is located in the eastern part of Belgium.
 
Often called the Essence of Europe, Belgium is both multicultural and multilingual. Flanders in the north, a flatland criss-crossed by canals, is proud of its medieval art cities, Antwerp, Bruges and Ghent. To the south in Wallonia, you will find the rolling hills of the Ardennes, countless castles, and the cities of Charleroi, Liege, Mons, Namur, and Tournai. The city of Brussels is one of the world's great cosmopolitan capitals, home to both the European Union and NATO, as well as a wealth of international trade and finance companies.
 
The Higher Education System
In Belgium, the communities are responsible for making decisions on services for individuals, such as education. The Flemish Community is therefore responsible for education in the Dutch-speaking part of the country, whilst the Federation Wallonia-Brussels, is the governing authority for the French-speaking part of Belgium.
 
The colleges of higher education and universities have introduced the bachelor-master structure. Higher education organised according to the bachelor-master structure is still divided into two types of education: higher professional education and academic education. Higher professional education is restricted to bachelor courses and is only provided at university colleges. Academic education consists of bachelor courses and master courses. Academic education is provided at universities and at university colleges.
 
Tuition fees and living costs
Depending on the programme, the estimated tuition fees are 2000 SGD $, while the living cost (accommodation, food, transport, utilities) estimation is between 1200 to 2000 SGD $ per month.
 
For more information about tuition fees in the Federation Wallonia Brussels, please visit Wallonia-Brussels Campus website:www.studyinbelgium.be/en/tuition-fees Students can find useful information on living costs and day-to-day student life on the Wallonia-Brussels Campus website:http://www.studyinbelgium.be/en/student-life
 
 
Scholarships
Scholarships are also offered by two Belgian communities: the Federation Wallonia-Brussels and the Flemish Community.
Scholarships of the Flemish Community
The Flanders Agency for Mobility and Cooperation in Higher Education (Flamenco), is a non-profit organisation with a mission to contribute to the internationalisation of Flanders’ higher education. One of its projects is Study in Flanders.
 
For information on scholarships, we refer to the page of Funding opportunities on the website of Study in Flanders:www.studyinflanders.be/en/study-programmes/scholarships
 
Flemish Department of Education and Training, Scholarships-Grants Division: www.ond.vlaanderen.be/english
Summer Language Courses:taalunieversum.org/taalunie/summer_courses_in_dutch
 
Bulgaria:
 
Basic Information about Bulgaria
The Republic of Bulgaria is situated in the north-eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. In the north, the country borders Romania, in the south, it shares a border with the Turkish Republic and the Greek Republic, in the west, its neighbours are Serbia and Macedonia, and in the east, it looks on to the Black Sea. Bulgaria has a population of around 9 million. Its capital city is Sofia. Bulgarian is the official language.
 
The Higher Education System
The country’s higher education system acquired a new structure at the end of 1995, when the National Assembly passed the Higher Education Law. The following multiple-level structure of academic qualifications was introduced by this law:
·         Three-year education at institutes and colleges, after its completion graduates receive a higher-education certificate and a professional qualification;
·         Four-year education at university, after its completion graduates receive a Bachelor’s degree;
·         Five- or six-year course at a university, after its completion graduates receive a Master’s degree; and
·         Three-year post-university training leading to a Doctorate.
Under the Higher Education Law, universities, specialised institutes, and colleges are classified as higher educational institutions in Bulgaria. They offer educational programmes of various types, as well as degrees, thus offering students opportunities for higher education in different ways.
 
Scholarships
Foreign citizens are enrolled in higher educational institutions, providing they pay 100% of the tuition fees. Tuition fee payment is waived for students studying for a doctorate and for postgraduate students in various fields accepted for a course of studies by a resolution of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers or under relevant governmental agreements.
 
Cyprus:
 
Basic Information about Cyprus
Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia. It is at the crossroads between Europe, Asia and Africa, and one of its roles is to build bridges between these continents. The island’s main economic activities are banking, tourism, craft exports and merchant shipping. Over the years, the economy has gradually developed into a modern one with dynamic services, industrial and agricultural sectors, and an advanced physical and social infrastructure. The capital of Cyprus is Nicosia (Lefkosia). The official languages of the Republic of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish. English is widely spoken.
The Higher Education System
At present, all universities in Cyprus are state universities, namely, the University of Cyprus, the Open University of Cyprus and the Cyprus University of Technology. Higher education in Cyprus is also provided by a number of State Higher Education Institutions, and an even greater number of Private Institutions of Higher Education, none of which has university status.
 
Scholarships
The government of Cyprus grants two types of scholarship for foreign students.
·         Scholarships for short specialized courses
Special short-term courses of 2 to 8 weeks are organised by institutes in the fields of private business management or management of the public sector in a free market economy, and a number of scholarships are offered to citizens from selected countries to attend these short courses.
For example, the following programmes are available at:
·         the Mediterranean Institute of Management (MIM)
·         the Cyprus Academy of Public Administration
·         the Cyprus International Institute of Management
·         Scholarships for long term/academic courses
A limited number of scholarships are also offered for the following programmes:
·         Post Graduate Management Diploma Programme (11 months) at the Mediterranean Institute of Management (MIM)
·         Master in Business Administration (1 year) at the
Cyprus International Institute of Management (CIIM)
·         Several one-year programmes at the Higher Hotel Institute
Higher Hotel Institute, Cyprus
You may also apply for scholarships offered by specific higher educational institutions of Cyprus. The list of higher educational institutions of Cyprus is available on the website of the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.
 
Czech Republic:
 
Basic Information about the Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is situated in Central Europe. The Czech Republic can be rightly called the crossroads of European civilizations. Due to its position in the heart of central Europe it boats a unique natural and cultural wealth. The country is surrounded by extensive mountain ranges which form most of its borderlines. Twelve important historical sights feature on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List.
The country is historically divided into three regions: Bohemia, Moravia and part of Silesia. The Czech Republic shares borders with Poland in the north, Austria in the south, Germany in the west, and Slovakia in the east. The country has 10.3 million inhabitants and the official language is Czech. The capital of the country is Prague.
The Czech Republic is an advanced Central European country with increasing standards of living. Its rich history has left a significant historical legacy, spectacular architecture and beautiful cultural works. Personalities of past and present times remain a source of pride for the Czech Republic. Many Czechs have received worldwide recognition in different branches of the sciences, arts and sports.
 
The Higher Education System
At present, there are 62 institutions in the Czech higher education system. There are 24 public institutions, 4 state higher educational institutions (three military schools and one Police Academy) and 34 private higher educational institutions. The Charles University, the Palacký University, Olomuc and the Masaryk University in Brno are traditional multi-disciplinary universities with a combination of humanities, natural sciences, theology and medicine. About 38% of students now study in Prague and 21% in Brno, while other students go to regional centres such as Ceske Budejovice, Cheb, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzen and others. In the Czech Republic, the higher education system is organised into three levels: bachelor, master and doctorate.
 
Scholarships
The Czech Republic awards scholarships for study programmes at the Language and Foundation Studies Centre of Charles University and for Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctor’s programmes at public higher educational institutions. Regarding Doctor’s study programmes, preferences are given to the graduates of Czech higher educational institutions. A foreign national who applies for a Czech Republic government scholarship to study at a public institution of higher education and has no knowledge of the Czech language can receive a scholarship for a special one-year language and foundation studies course at the Institute of Language and Foundations Studies of Charles University. At the end of the language and foundation study course, the student is required to successfully pass the entrance examination, in which the scope and contents are designed by the respective faculty or higher educational institution. The faculty or higher educational institution itself publishes basic information about admission procedures in advance.
 
Denmark:
 
Basic Information about Denmark
Denmark is based in Northern Europe and is the smaller of the Scandinavian countries. The Kingdom of Denmark also has two autonomous provinces; the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The population amounts to 5.6 million people. The official language is Danish, but most people also understand and speak English.
 
In Denmark you will find that distances are short – and this makes it possible to combine all the atmosphere of buzzing city life with the relaxation of the beautiful Danish countryside. The capital, Copenhagen, is one of the greenest capitals in the world and has an old, historical centre and a large network of pedestrian streets, bicycle paths and parks.
 
Denmark constantly maintains a high ranking in liveability surveys. Quality of life is a characteristic feature of the Danish society combining social security, a clean environment and an attractive business climate with high standards in education and research – also in an international perspective.
 
In 2010 Denmark was yet again voted the happiest country in the world.
 
The Higher Education System
Higher education institutions in Denmark can be grouped in four main types:
·         Universities offer Bachelor’s Master’s and PhD programmes in all academic areas at Danish universities.
·         University level institutions of fine and performing arts, design and architecture offer research-based programs starting from Bachelor’s and continuing with Master’s and PhD programs.
·         Danish University Colleges offer Professional Bachelor’s programmes in areas such as teacher training, engineering, business, nursing, health, nutrition and social work.
·         Academies of Professional Higher Education offer 2-2, 5 year Academy Profession (AP) degree programmes and Professional Bachelor’s degree programmes.
Making the choice to study in Denmark is easy. There are plenty of opportunities for international students – be it as an exchange student or a full degree student. The Danish higher education institutions are internationally oriented and offer a large selection of programmes and individual courses in English.
 
Each institution is responsible for admission, and you can get further information about entrance qualifications, supplementary tests and the possibilities of transfer of credits from the admission offices at the institutions.
 
High quality in education
The quality of higher education is assured in many ways. It is regulated and financed by the state, and all public educational institutions are approved and evaluated on an ongoing basis. The institutions have a high degree of autonomy, but must at the same time follow the national regulations on teacher qualifications, award structures and external evaluation of their study programmes. This system is a way of setting national standards for higher education, thus ensuring high quality at all institutions.
 
All institutions use the European credit transfer system, ECTS, facilitating international credit transfer. Students receive certificates, diplomas or other types of documentation for all completed courses. All students finishing a full degree or a diploma programme receive a Diploma Supplement in English.
 
Scholarships
Denmark has a scholarship programme for students from non-EU/EEA countries. Scholarships and tuition fee waivers are available for high performing students enrolling in certain study programmes. And some universities and educational institutions have their own scholarships. Contact the institution when you apply for admission. In addition, it is possible to apply for an Erasmus Mundus scholarship to do a master's degree partly at a Danish and partly at another European educational institution.
 
Exchange/guest students
Your possibilities as an exchange/guest student depend on your home institution and the chosen exchange agreement. If you are studying in countries outside the EU you should seek information about grants and scholarships at your educational institution in your own country.
Students from the EU as well as outside the EU can find links to several scholarship programmes at the EU-database Ploteus.
 
Estonia:
 
Basic Information about Estonia
Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic Countries. Situated on the north eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, Estonia borders with Latvia in the south and with the Russian Federation in the east and has strong cultural and linguistic ties with Finland. The capital of the country is Tallinn and is only about 85 km south of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Sweden is Estonia's nearest western neighbour across the Baltic Sea. The country has a population of about 1.4 million people.
 
The Higher Education System
In Estonia, the higher education system consists of two branches – an academic branch and a professional higher education. Thus, one can choose between the two types of institutions – universities and professional higher education institutions.
The academic branch of Estonian higher education follows the Bachelors-Masters – Doctoral model. For Bachelor’s degree, the length of study is usually three – four years (180 ECTS). The Master's level qualification lasts normally 2 years (120 ECTS) and is a prerequisite for the commencement of doctoral studies. The length of doctoral studies is 3-4 years.
 
Professional higher education institutions offer non-academic first cycle higher education aimed at providing skills and knowledge required to work in a certain profession or continue studies at a master's level. The length is 3-4 years (180-240 ECTS).
 
Further information and a list of higher education institutions are available at www.smartestonia.ee.
 
Scholarships
Since January 1, 2005 the Archimedes Foundation is responsible for technical coordination of scholarships/internships offered to Estonian students and researchers by our foreign partners and for scholarships offered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research to foreign students and researchers.
 
Archimedes Foundation participates in the selection process of the candidates, distributes information about scholarship and placement opportunities to Estonian and foreign students, provides consultations for all interested parties and organizes communication between Estonian and foreign institutions.
 
Finland:
 
Basic Information about Finland
Finland is situated in northern Europe. It borders Russia in the east, the Gulf of Finland in the south, the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden in the west and Norway in the north. The capital is Helsinki. The population of the country is 5.3 million. The official languages are Finnish and Swedish with 94% of the population speaking Finnish and 6% Swedish.
 
Finland is a welfare state with the aim of securing for its inhabitants equal opportunities for a good life and for the most efficient use of its resources as possible. The geopolitical location between West and East has always been reflected in the country’s events and goings on. With this combination of western and eastern influences, Finnish culture has developed into something strong and highly individual.
 
The Higher Education System
The Finnish higher education system consists of two complementary sectors: universities and polytechnics (also known as universities of applied sciences). The function of the universities is to conduct scientific research and provide undergraduate and postgraduate education based on it.
 
The Finnish Universities Act has been reformed. The universities were separated from the State and they chose of becoming either corporations subject to public law or foundations subject to private law. Therefore the autonomy of the universities will enlarge further, and they will have more latitude in the management of their finances. New universities were created through mergers so that at the beginning of 2010 there were 16 universities operating under the Finnish Ministry of Education.
 
The system of polytechnics is still fairly new. Polytechnics (universities of applied science) are multi-field regional institutions focusing on contacts with working life and on regional development. There are 25 polytechnics operating under the Ministry of Education. Polytechnic education is provided in the following fields: Humanities and education, Culture, Social sciences, Business and administration, Natural resources and the environment, Technology, Communication and transport, Natural sciences, Social services, Health and sport, Tourism, Catering and domestic services.
 
Bachelor’s (3 years) and Master’s (2 years) degrees are both undergraduate degrees in Finland. Universities also confer postgraduate degrees: Licentiate (a pre-doctoral degree) (2 years) and Doctor’s (4 years) degrees. Polytechnic degrees are Bachelor-level (3.5-4 years) and Master-level (1-1.5 years) degrees with a professional emphasis.
 
Scholarships
The Centre for International Mobility CIMO, an organisation which operates under the Finnish Ministry of Education, offers services to encourage cross-cultural communication. CIMO administers scholarship and exchange programmes, and offers information, advisory services and publications. In addition, CIMO promotes teaching of the Finnish language and culture, and arranges summer courses in the Finnish language and culture for international students. There are various opportunities for students to study in Finland.
 
CIMO scholarships are mainly targeted for postgraduate students who have completed their Master-level studies. There are two types of scholarships: individual scholarships, which young researchers apply for themselves and host fellowships, which are applied by the Finnish higher education departments willing to host researchers and postgraduates. It should be noted that, in Finland, Master’s programmes are not considered postgraduate studies. CIMO's undergraduate scholarships promote advanced studies of the Finnish language. Below is a list of scholarships offered by CIMO:
·         Finnish Studies and Research/Scholarships for Advanced Studies of the Finnish Language at Finnish Universities
 
·         Exchange Programmes (Erasmus Mundus, Asia-Link and Freemovers)
 
·         CIMO Fellowships
 
·         Finnish Studies and Research/Scholarships for Postgraduate Studies and Research at Finnish Universities
 
France:
 
Basic Information about France
Noted as much for its rich culture as for its illustrious scientific achievements, France is unsurprisingly one of the top education destinations for international students. In fact, in 2007, France welcomed 265,000 international students that constituted 14% of its student population.
 
The Higher Education System
French degrees are granted by a comprehensive network of higher education institutions and world-famous research centers. This network comprises 88 universities, some 500 “Grandes écoles” – uniquely French institutions that cover more than 240 engineering schools and 220 schools of business and management – 59 public schools of Arts, as well as many specialized schools for specific sectors such as fashion, social work, paramedical disciplines, tourism and sports.
The French degrees awarded are based on the European system of Bachelor, Master, and PhD, expressed in credits as defined by the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS).
France’s 88 public universities cover the entire range of academic disciplines, from the sciences to technology to literature, languages, arts, social sciences, law, economics, management etc. Tuition fees (in fact only registration fees in most institutions) are among the lowest in the world and are kept affordable as public institutions enjoy the financial support of the State. However, the quality of the degree programs is not compromised by low tuition fees; throughout, high international standards are maintained at all levels. In addition, French and foreign students have equal access to student benefits and face similar admission requirements.
 
Many study programs are available in English (Masters and PhDs). Please visit www.campusfrance.org to get the complete and detailed list.
 
Research in France
An integral part of the French curriculum is the emphasis on hands-on research. More than 300 doctoral programs, in collaboration with about 1,200 research centers and laboratories nationwide, prepare students for careers in their chosen fields. France’s doctoral programs have traditionally been attended by an international student community. More than 35% of PhD students in France today are foreigners.
France is one of the forerunners of scientific and technological innovation. It owes this standing to its research capacity and its many achievements in such fields as aerospace, transportation, electronics, telecommunications, chemistry, biotechnology, health and mathematics, successes attested to by the number of French winners of the Fields Medals and Nobel Prizes.
 
Tuition fees and living costs
For the tuition fees, the universities and certain “Grandes écoles” will charge approximately SGD 600 per year. For other schools, the prices vary. The business schools are the most expensive. The cost of living will depend on which city you are staying and the type of accommodation. Generally, you will need approximately SGD 2000 per month to cover all the living costs if you are based in Paris, and approximately 1600 SGD if you live outside Paris. Please take into account that the French government reimburses about one third of the accommodation fees per month to students.
 
Scholarships
Most scholarships are granted in the framework of university or institutional co-operations. Students may then contact the office of International Relations of their respective universities to get more information about the scholarships available. The French Government scholarship schemes available for students in Singapore are the following ones:
 
·         Eiffel scholarship and Eiffel Doctorate Scholarship
These scholarships are intended for gifted foreign students who wish to pursue further studies in France in four core fields: engineering sciences for the Master’s course, and sciences in a broader sense for the PhD course (engineering sciences, exact sciences – mathematics, physics, chemistry- life sciences, nano- and bio-technologies, environment sciences, and information & communication sciences); economics and management; law and political sciences; and public administration.
 
The applications are submitted by French higher education centres. For PhD courses, the Eiffel scholarship is awarded for a maximum of ten months, with no additional language training period. For more information, see www.egide.asso.fr/eiffel. Applications are available in September and have to be submitted by early January.
 
·         Merlion and Merlion PhDM
MERLION is the first Franco-Singaporean collaboration conducted by research institutions in both countries to facilitate and cultivate the formation of joint scientific research projects in the fields of the basic sciences, information and communication technologies, engineering, medical / bio sciences and human and social sciences. The aim of this program is two-fold; to provide support for joint scientific and technological projects and to encourage the formation of research laboratories jointly run by France and Singapore, such as IPAL, SONDRA or Thales@NTU.
 
The two-year-old MERLION PhD program is designed to attract high-calibre potential PhD candidates. Successful candidates are provided with funds to pursue their PhD curriculum. In 2089, 9 PhD projects were submitted and of these, 4 were selected. For more information, please visit
 
http://www.ambafrance-sg.org/sciencetech-platform/merlion/
 
 
·         Scholarships from the Pont Neuf Association
The Pont Neuf Association grants scholarships under three core programs: 
·         Philippe Habert scholarship (Bourse Philippe Habert) for political science studies at the Paris Institute of Political Studies (Cycle International d’Etudes Politiques, IEP de Paris)
 
·         Scholarship for young doctors (Bourse Jeunes médecins) for medical students and young doctors who want to take a six-week-long internship at a Paris clinic
 
·         Scholarship for medical professionals (Bourse Médecins spécialistes) who want to do an internship at a French clinic for a period of four to six months
 
Germany:
 
Basic Information about Germany
Germany lies in the center of Europe. It is the largest member state of the European Union, with over 82 million inhabitants. Cities like Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Stuttgart and many others are renowned for their cultural diversity, vibrant lifestyle and historic heritage. Museums, concert halls, theatres, opera houses, galleries, cinemas… – the wide range of cultural activities offers something for everybody. And a trip across Germany is a journey through just about every cultural epoch.
 
Germany ranks 1st in Europe for the highest number of newly registered patents, and it ranks 2nd in the world, after the USA. Germany is the largest economy in the European Union and the 3rd largest in the world.
 
The most widely spoken mother tongue in Europe is German.
Germany is home to some of the world’s leading companies in many areas, such as information technology, health care, biotechnology and the automotive industry, making it the world’s leading export nation.
Germany is Singapore’s most important European trading partner. At present, more than 1000 German companies are located in Singapore.
 
Did you know that:
·         around 10% of all Nobel Prizes ever awarded went to German scientists; for instance, a total of 28 German researchers received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 24 in Physics, and 15 in Medicine?
·         more than 300,000 people in Germany earn their living as musicians, performing artists, and specialists in the arts?
·         there are around 6,000 museums in Germany?
·         the athletic shoe was invented in 1920 by the German Adolf (“Adi”) Dassler, the founder of adidas.
·         no other national soccer team made it to the World Cup Final as many times as Germany?
·         the Computer was invented in Germany? German inventor and engineer Konrad Ernst Otto Zuse developed the first modern computer called 'Z3' in 1941.
 
The Higher Education System
Germany has a long tradition of academic excellence in education, science and research.
 
Today, about 250,000 foreigners are studying in Germany, making it the 3rd most popular host country for international students after the USA and UK.
There is hardly another country in the world that boasts such a density of higher education institutions: More than 350 universities, universities of applied sciences as well as colleges of art and music cover over 400 disciplines and, thus, offer the possibility of pursuing almost any specialization or research project you may have in mind (www.study-in.de).
 
Many German universities offer courses that are taught in English and lead to international degrees, such as Bachelor, Master or PhD (www.daad.de/idp).
German universities combine theoretical learning with practical application, often in an interdisciplinary environment. In addition, many universities cooperate closely with multinational companies as well as with other research institutes in Germany and abroad.
 
With over 350 research institutes, Germany offers all students, scientists, doctoral and post-doctoral candidates one of the finest academic environments available in the world today (www.research-in-germany.de).
Prominent fields of study popular with foreign students include: Engineering Sciences, Natural Sciences, Economics and Business Administration, as well as degrees in the Arts, Music, Architecture and Design.
Tuition fees at public German universities are very moderate. For most universities, only a small administrative fee is levied. Some charge tuition fees of ca. EUR 500 (~S$ 1.000) per semester. Living expenses amount to around EUR 650-700 (~S$ 1.300-1.400) per month, depending on the region.
 
Tuition fees and living costs
German universities charge only very moderate tuition fees or even no tuition fees at all. What is more, international students are subject to the same fees as German students. Where fees are charged, they currently range from SGD 700 – SGD 1300 per semester which means that a full Bachelor's programme often costs as little as SGD 6000. A Master's degree frequently costs no more than SGD 4000 and at PhD level there are generally no fees at all. As for the living costs, on average students will need about SGD 1280 to cover their cost of living.
 
Scholarships
Scholarships are primarily managed by the German Academic Exchange Service / Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) and other public foundations.
 
Greece:
 
Basic Information about Greece
Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula in South East Europe; its territory also includes several hundred islands in the Ionian and Aegean Seas. Around 20% of the total land area is comprised of islands. Mountains and hills dominate the landscape accounting for nearly 80% of the total land area. The capital of the country is Athens. Greece has a population of 10.7 million. The official language is Greek with 98% of the population speaking it, although English and French are also widely understood.
 
The Higher Education System
Greece has 18 university institutions (AEI) and 14 institutions of technological education (TEI). Technological Educational Institutions (TEI) form part of the higher education system just as the universities, but belong to the non-university sector. There are also Military Academies. The diplomas awarded by certain private post-secondary education institutions are not recognized by the State.
 
University level first stage: Proptychiakes Spoudes (undergraduate level studies)
Undergraduate degree programs at universities normally last four years (eight semesters) and lead to a Ptychio (Bachelor) in the relevant field.
 
University level second stage: Metaptychiakes Spoudes (postgraduate studies)
The first level of postgraduate studies lasts a minimum of two years (four semesters) and leads to a Metaptychiako Díploma Exidíkefsis (Postgraduate Diploma of Specialization, equivalent to Master’s degree). This study program may be taken and completed in a University or research institute outside Greece. The degree, however, is awarded in Greece.
 
University level third stage: Didaktorikes Metaptychiakes Spoudes (doctoral studies)
The doctoral degree (Didaktoriko) is conferred after public defense of a thesis. The research must be original and show advances in research and science. A Master’s degree is required by most universities for attending doctoral studies. A doctoral thesis requires at least three years’ study from the time the student enrolled in the doctoral study course.
 
Scholarships
Several Greek Governmental Institutions offer every year various scholarships to Thai nationals for different kind of studies, namely under- and postgraduate, doctoral studies and research, studies of Greek language and civilization.
 
Scholarships of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs offers several scholarships to Asian nationals who want to pursue their studies at a Greek University in every department but theological (Bachelor and Master Programs, Doctorate Studies). www.mfa.gr
 
Scholarships of the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs offers the following scholarships to Thai citizens:
·         two-year scholarships for postgraduate studies
 
·         one-year scholarships for studies in Greek language
 
·         three-month scholarships for post doctoral research
www.ypepth.gr
 
Scholarships of the State Scholarships Foundation (Idryma Kratikon Ypotrofion, IKY)
·         eight-month scholarships for attending Greek language and civilization seminars
 
·         one-year-long scholarships for postgraduate and doctoral studies, with possible renewal every year up to five.
www.iky.gr

For all the above scholarships the Embassy of Greece in Bangkok is responsible for gathering the applications, choosing the potential scholars and forwarding their files to the Greek Ministries or IKY foundation. Interested candidates are requested to keep a constant eye on the web pages of the above institutions.
Non Government institutions also offer various scholarships, for example:
The Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation offer several scholarships a year for a 6- or 12-month internship stay in Greece for students pursuing their doctoral studies. www.onassis.gr And so do independently various Greek Universities. A list of the Greek Universities can be downloaded from the web page of the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs.
 
Hungary:
 
Basic Information about Hungary
Hungary is a landlocked country located at the heart of Europe. Situated in Central Europe, Hungary has always been a meeting-point of European cultures. Its capital, Budapest, is a metropolitan with 2 million inhabitants and is seen by many as one of the most beautiful European cities. The country's climate is continental and is protected from excessive climatic changes and natural catastrophes.
 
With a population of around 10 million, Hungarian culture is unmistakable, as it combines West-European style with East-European spice. Hungarian is the country’s official language, although English and German are taught in schools as secondary languages.
 
The country boasts a rich heritage that attracts people from all over the world. Hungary presents geological sites and palaeontology remains, ancient Roman ruins, relics of Turkish culture, and well-preserved buildings, providing an overview on the different styles of the history of European architecture. Eight of these sites have been declared by UNESCO to be part of the World Heritage.
 
Based on its rich cultural and folklore tradition, Hungary has also become a centre of not only of classical and contemporary European art, music and literature, but also a site for avant-garde and experimental cultural movements.
 
The Higher Education System
The higher education system in Hungary has three levels. The Bachelor (undergraduate – 3 years), Master (graduate – 2 years) and PhD (doctoral – 3 years) degrees awarded by Hungarian higher education institutions are recognised in all European Union countries.
At present, Hungary’s higher education system comprises of 18 state-financed universities, two public university, 12 state-financed colleges, 26 religious educational institutions, and 9 colleges operated by public foundations. More details about Hungary’s higher education system and major universities are available at the Education Ministry’s website at www.om.hu.
 
Scholarships
Hungarian Scholarship Board
HSB is responsible for submitting proposals for the Ministry of Education regarding international mobility and the national policy of scholarships and grants; participating in the preparation of action plans based on bilateral agreements; defining competition criteria and nominating candidates for scholarships and grants by evaluating and ranking over 2,000 applications per year. These scholarships and grants (largely financed by the Hungarian Ministry of Education) are based on a pool system and bilateral educational, scientific and cultural exchange programmes with 45 countries. These international agreements enable students, postgraduates, professors, researchers and artists to widen their professional experience in Hungary.
 
Study Programmes by HSB
Hungarian language courses: They offer language courses of 60-300 lessons at all levels and with various timings (from 2*3 to 5*4 hours/week).
 
The students of their Summer University, organised in co-operation with the Kodolányi János University College, participate in 20 language lessons per week. This is rounded up by 3-4 lectures (offered also in English) on a wide range of subjects, and through cultural programmes and study visits. Students receive up to 14 ECTS credits for their work.
 
Their Preparatory Courses for University Studies are designed for young people from abroad who plan to continue their studies at a Hungarian higher education institution. The one-year course with an overall of 900 lessons starts with an intensive language course, which is later supplemented with studies in a chosen field and its terminology (specialisations offered: economics, medicine, engineering, law and humanities). Preliminary knowledge of Hungarian is not necessarily required.
 
Their university level curriculum in Hungarian Studies, prepared in co-operation with the University of Pécs, offers a 10-month university exchange programme for people studying Hungarian at foreign universities. 25-40 ECTS credit points are available for attending the course.
 
Their one-year Translators' Course is open to people with a good command of Hungarian who plan to start a literary translator's career.
 
Ireland:
 
Basic Information about Ireland
Ireland's worldwide reputation for high quality education is built on the solid foundation of commitment to excellence. Ireland is a beautiful island, combining contemporary modern cities with an unspoilt countryside, cityscapes steeped in history and a rich natural habitat. Renowned for friendliness, our safe, English speaking country offers the warmest of welcomes to students from all over the world.
 
Join the growing number of international students choosing Ireland to fulfil their potential.
 
Ireland is an English-speaking country with close cultural, economic and educational links with the English-speaking world, especially with the UK - our next door neighbour and with the USA, where Irish Americans form a high proportion of the population. We are European - part of the EU family of nations and cultures and of the increasingly integrated European Education Area. Ireland is Global in outlook - for several centuries Irish people have emigrated to and settled in many countries around the globe and today we welcome people to Ireland from all over the world.
 
The Higher Education System
The higher education system (third level) in Ireland is broad in scope and encompasses the university sector, the technological sector, education colleges and private, independent colleges. The institutions which fall within the first three groupings are autonomous and self governing, but substantially state-funded. Admission requirements for overseas students are determined individually by each institution and are generally based on national examination performance and English language aptitude. The academic year typically runs from September to June and is divided into either two or three semesters with holidays in December (Christmas) and April (Easter). The following academic awards can be acquired at Irish third level institutions:
 
Higher Certificate: two-year full-time course.
Ordinary Bachelor’s Degree: three-year full-time course.
Honours Bachelor’s Degree: normally a three- or four-year course.
Graduate Diploma: designed for graduates seeking vocational reorientation – usually a one-year course.
Master’s Degree: either by research or through a taught programme. Normally one-two year(s) in duration.
Doctorate (PhD): usually takes a minimum of three years of original research.
Scholarships
Some scholarships for overseas students are available from the universities and colleges themselves. Students are advised to directly contact the international office of the institution of their choice to obtain further information.
 
Italy:
 
Basic Information about Italy
Italian culture is deeply rooted in ancient civilizations which flourished on the peninsula for over a millennium and left their imprint all over the country in arts, legal system and traditions. Thanks to its traditions and innovations, Italy became the cradle of visual arts, music, poetry, literature and played and continues to play an influential role in Europe’s culture and society as a whole.
 
Today, Italy ranks among the 8 most industrialized countries in the world. Alongside big companies, state-owned and private, it has developed a sound network of small and medium-sized enterprises, promoted scientific parks, and fostered basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields such as biology, ICT, medicine, physics and space science.
 
The 20 Nobel Prize laureates since 1906 prove the world recognition of the achievements of Italian scientists, physicians, chemists, literature men and economists who excelled in different spheres, including medicine, chemistry, literature and economics.
 
Italian hospitality, lifestyle and the high quality of education have made Italy a great place for living and studying.
 
The Higher Education System
Italy has a very long tradition in higher education. It is the country where the first and among the most important European Universities were founded during the Middle-ages. Moreover, it has played an important role in European higher education reform as it was engaged to create the so-called “European Area of Higher Education”, which is being implemented all over Europe. Italy has become one of the country in which there has been a significant growth in number of international students in the last 10 years.
 
At present, the university sector is made up of 77 university institutions classified as state universities, non state universities, universities for foreigners, university institutions specialized in postgraduate studies, telematic universities. In addition, there are other types of educational institutions, the non-university sector, that covered traditionally art but it has since expanded into other areas such as the interpreting and translating professions or language mediation, as well as psychotherapy at postgraduate institutes/schools, courses at military academies, higher technical education and training as well as vocational post-secondary professional education and training by the Regions.
 
Undergraduate studies consist of Corsi di Laurea (CL=First Degree Courses) aimed at guaranteeing students adequate command of general scientific methods and contents, as well as specific professional skills. First degree courses last three years.
Graduate studies include Corsi di Laurea Magistrale (LM = Second Degree Courses) and Corsi di Master Universitario di 1° Livello (CMU1 = First Level University Master’s Degree Courses). The duration of the courses varies from two to three years.
Postgraduate studies include Corsi di Dottorato di Ricerca (CDR = Research Doctorate Programmes), Corsi di Specializzazione (CS = Specialization Courses) and Corsi di Master Universitario di 2° Livello (CMU2 = Second Level University Mastrer’s Degree Courses).
 
Classes are mainly held in Italian, although there is an increasing number in English. For the course held in Italian, students are asked to be competent in Italian Language, and will be tested prior to admission. For Italian Language study, students can attend language courses either at the State Universities, such as the University for Foreigners of Perugia (www.unistrapg.it) or of Siena (www.unistrasi.it), or at other private institutions authorized to issue the required certification.
 
To be eligible for admission students are required to hold a school qualification conferred on completion of minimum 12 years of previous schooling. Candidates may contact their local diplomatic mission for further information and for official submission of pre-enrolment documents at least six months before departure. Please note that the academic year starts in September/October.
 
Tuition fees and living costs
Tuition fees in public universities are between Euro 400/2000 per year, while private universities are more expensive and the tuition fees are around Euro 10000. About the living costs, considering accommodation, food, telephone, local travel and leisure costs, students should consider a monthly budget of Euro 1000/1200 depending on the location. Prices can vary considerably depending on where you live. All the tourist areas and the main cities, especially in the North of Italy, are more expensive than smaller towns.
 
 
Scholarships
Tuition Fees are usually very low as most Universities obtain public financial support. All international students are entitled to the same student assistance services as Italian students, including scholarships, dining hall services and housing. However, the total number of foreign students is restricted. Every University has a Tutor Office that may be contacted for inquiries on scholarships and student assistance services.
The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs also offers scholarships for foreign students wishing to pursue their studies in Italy. They are intended for Universities, Academies of Fine Arts, Art Restoration Institutes, Music Conservatories, the National School of Cinematography and Research Centres.
 
Interested candidates may contact their local Italian diplomatic mission for application deadlines and procedures or visit the following web pages:
 
Latvia:
 
Basic Information about Latvia
Latvia is comparatively small country in North-eastern Europe, on the east coast of the Baltic Sea and is bound by Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. It is situated on a trade crossroads and has long since served as a bridge between Western Europe and Russia. Nearly one third of the 2.3 million people population live in Riga, the capital of the country. The landscape of the country is marked by lowland plains and rolling hills. It has an extensive network of rivers, thousands of lakes and hundreds of kilometres of undeveloped seashore lined by pine forests, dunes, and continuous white sand beaches. The official language is Latvian. The most widely used foreign languages in the country are English, Russian and German.
 
The Higher Education System
The system of higher education is binary. Most universities and other institutions of higher education offer both academic and professional programs. Academic higher education programs are based on fundamental and/or applied science; they lead to a Bachelors degree and Masters degree. A Bachelor's degree is awarded after three or four years of study. The Bachelors degree is considered a complete academic qualification. A Master's degree is obtained on successful completion of a second phase of academic higher education, lasting one or two years. Bachelor's or Master's degrees are not awarded in medicine or dentistry, but a degree in medicine or dentistry is equated to a master's degree. Doctoral programmes have length of 3 to 4 years at different institutions.
There are six universities and a number of other higher educational institutions in Latvia. All the universities and 32 other institutions (including 18 colleges) are state-run. In addition, there are 22 private institutions (including eight colleges), all of which are state-recognized. All the recognized institutions enjoy autonomy.
 
Scholarships
The Latvian higher education system is open to international students. The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Latvia offers scholarships to students and teaching staff of several countries for studies and research work in state higher education institutions, as well as for participation in summer schools. The eligible countries whose citizens can apply for the Latvian scholarship are the following: Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Greece, Belgium (Flanders Community and Belgian French Community), China, Estonia, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, and Hungary. At present no scholarships are available for Singaporean students, but enrolment in the Latvian higher education system is possible.
 
Lithuania:
 
Basic Information about Lithuania
Lithuania is the largest of the three Baltic States. It is bound by the Baltic Sea, Latvia, Poland and the Kaliningrad Region of Russia and Belarus. The capital of the country is Vilnius. Lithuania has a population of 3.5 million people. The official language is Lithuanian.
From cities and towns full of historic monuments to wonderful retreats in a pristine natural environment, Lithuania has places to go and see for everyone. Officially recognized as the geographical centre of Europe and connected by numerous routes to major European cities, Lithuaniacan be easily reached by land, water or air.
 
The Higher Education System
In Lithuania, higher educational institutions provide study programmes of varying duration and levels. The institutions are of two types: universities and colleges – non-university higher educational institutions. Universities offer Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctoral programmes, high-level professional creative artistic activities, postgraduate art studies and research opportunities. A college is a higher educational institution where non-university studies prevail and the majority of students study in accordance with non-university study programmes, applied research and (or) development or professional arts.
There are 50 higher education institutions in Lithuania. There are 15 state and 7 private universities, 16 state and 12 private colleges.
University level first stage: Undergraduate studies (Pagrindines studijos)

Undergraduate studies leading up to a Bachelor’s Degree (Bakalauras) or a professional qualification and they generally last four years.
University level second stage: Specialised or Master’s studies (Magistras), Integrated Studies

Upon completion of an undergraduate study programme, graduates may pursue specialised professional studies or studies leading to a Master’s Degree which last 1.5 to 2 years. Specialised professional study programmes, lasting 1-2 years, lead to professional qualifications. There are also integrated studies (i.e., combined first and second stages): the duration of studies is no more than 6 academic years and no less than 5 academic years.
University level third stage: Rezidentura (Residency), Meno aspirantura(Postgraduate art studies), Doktorantura (Doctoral studies)

Doctoral studies last 4 years and can be pursued after completing the second stage, integrated studies, or acquiring equivalent qualifications. Upon completion of the doctoral course, a doctoral thesis must be prepared and publicly defended by the candidate in order to qualify for a Doctorate. Doctoral studies must be jointly organised by higher educational and research institutions.
 
Scholarships
The Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania offers scholarships for Lithuanian and (or) Baltic studies at the higher education institutions of Lithuania. The scholarship can be granted for a semester or two (up to 10 months) of Lithuanian (Baltic) studies. The Ministry also offers scholarships for Lithuanian language and culture summer courses (3-4 weeks) in the higher education institutions of Lithuania.
 
Luxembourg:
 
Basic Information about Luxembourg
Luxembourg is a landlocked country in Western Europe bordering Germany, Belgium and France. The country is divided into two distinct geographical regions. The woody uplands of the Ardennes in the north and the fertile lowlands of the south called Bon Pays. The capital is Luxembourg. The population amounts to 0.5 million. The national language is Luxembourgish, while French is used for administrative and media purposes, although German is the main written language for the press.
 
The Higher Education System
 
The University Sector
The University of Luxembourg was created in July 2003. The institution comprises nearly all the former existing institutions of higher education in Luxembourg.
At present, the University of Luxembourg is organised in three faculties: Sciences, Technology and Communication; Law, Economics and Finance; Languages and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education.
 
The University of Luxembourg offers first-degree courses leading to bachelor’s degrees in the fields of law, economics, European culture studies (languages, human sciences), educational sciences, psychology, social sciences, life sciences, engineering, informatics, natural sciences and technology.
 
Master’s degrees are also awarded. The various programmes are offered in close co-operation with foreign universities (in Belgium, France or Germany).
 
There are also various non-state-run initiatives offering postgraduate courses. For example, the Chamber for Private Sector Employees (Chambre des Employés Privés) organises a one-year course in collaboration with the Institute of Business Administration (of France’s Université Nancy II), leading to a French postgraduate degree.
 
The University of Luxembourg offers students the opportunity to pursue doctoral studies under the supervision of academic staff authorised to manage doctoral theses (registration). These theses can be managed either autonomously by the University of Luxembourg or in conjunction with a co-supervisor who is also authorised to manage research resulting from a foreign research institution.
The Non-University Sector
 
The non-university sector consists of two years’ training at the further education level in a limited number of vocational areas (this selection of areas are offered by further education colleges) leading to a Brevet de Technicien Supérieur (higher technician’s diploma).
Scholarships
 
The Centre for Educational Guidance and Counselling (Centre de Documentation et d’Information sur l’Enseignment Supérieur) provides prospective students with information about higher education courses and practical information about student life in Luxembourg. Details of courses can always be obtained by approaching institutions directly.
 
The International Institute allocates a number of scholarships to students. If a scholarship is sought, applicants should attach an academic reference or, if they are already employed in a profession, a reference from their employer.
 
Malta:
 
Basic Information about Malta
The Maltese archipelago basically consists of three islands: Comino, Gozo and Malta. Located in the Mediterranean Sea, just 93 km south of Sicily, the archipelago covers a total surface area of 316 sq. km with a population of 0.4 million. The largest island of the group is Malta, from which the archipelago takes its name. Valletta, the capital, is the cultural, administrative and commercial centre of the archipelago. The official languages are Maltese and English, but Maltese is described in the Constitution of Malta as the national language.
 
The Higher Education System
Higher education is mainly provided by the University of Malta.
 
University level first stage:
Certificates, Diplomas and Bachelor’s Degrees are awarded in such fields as nursing, diplomatic studies, management, administration, law, librarian science, religious studies, arts and political and social sciences after a course lasting from one to three years. A Bachelor’s (General) Degree is received in three years. A Bachelor’s (Honours) Degree is received in four or five years, depending on the field of study.
 
University level second stage
The second stage leads to a Master’s Degree after a period of one to two years.
Candidates must hold an appropriate first degree with at least second-class Honours. In special circumstances, candidates without an Honours Degree may be admitted after taking a one-year preparatory course and successfully passing a qualifying examination. Master’s degree courses require candidates to submit a dissertation in addition to successfully completing the required courses.
 
Doctorate’s Degrees
Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Law (LLD) degrees are awarded by the faculties of Medicine and Law, respectively, at the end of a 5- or 6-year course. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree is awarded after at least 3 years of study following the award of a Master’s degree. PhD candidates are required to submit a thesis after a period of research on an approved topic.
 
Scholarships
The higher education system of Malta is open to international students. Currently there are over 600 full-time foreign students from some 75 countries. In addition, around 300 foreign students participate in semester exchanges. The International Office of the University of Malta (www.um.edu.mt/intoff) provides information and services regarding course requirements, accommodation, immigration, financial matters, health issues, university procedures, regulations and qualifications. At present no scholarships are available, but it is possible to enrol in higher educational institutions in Malta. For more information, please visit the websites below.
 
Norway:
 
Basic Information about Norway
Norway is the northernmost country of Europe and part of Scandinavia. It is a constitutional monarchy famous for its natural beauty, the midnight sun and northern lights. Traditionally, Norway has been known for its maritime and offshore industries, but heavy investments in ICT and technology have resulted in a diverse and innovative economy. Norway can offer a vast range of experiences and activities for everyone. In the summer, students may enjoy sailing in the fjords and hiking in beautiful forests and mountains. It is also the peak season for music festivals which attract many world-class performers. In the winter, the snowy landscape provides heaps of opportunities for people with all sets of risk appetite. Future students may enjoy skiing and snowboarding at a number of resorts that are often located in close proximity to urban areas providing urban dwellers with an active lifestyle, both summer- and wintertime. Also, Norwegians enjoy an extensive café culture and an exciting nightlife. The official language is Norwegian, but nearly everyone speaks English. Thus, Singaporeans should not experience significant barriers to an active social life in a modern country rich on history, nature, culture and all sorts of interesting activities.
 
The Higher Education System
Norway hosts a large number of higher educational institutions. These institutions provide a vast range of options from which students may choose. In Norway, higher education requires students to have completed an internationally recognized upper secondary education equivalent to the upper secondary education in Norway. Please refer to NOKUT for more information,www.nokut.no/en/Foreign-education. The structure of Norwegian higher education consists of a three-year bachelor’s degree, two-year master’s degree and three-year doctorate degree, each with minimum requirements for entry. This conforms to the Bologna Process which effectively implements a common term and credit structure across Europe. As a result, studies in Norway may open an endless range of opportunities for students who are eager to pursue a further academic, or professional, career in Europe.
 
 
Tuition Fees, living costs and scholarships
Norwegian universities and state university colleges are mainly public institutions that do not charge tuition fees for international students. These institutions are complemented by a number of private institutions that do charge tuition. Please refer to the individual institutions’ websites for more details. Living costs in Norway are rather high compared to most countries in Europe. Thus, students must carefully assess whether they can cover these before pursuing an academic degree in Norway.
Where can I find more information?
·         Study in Norway: comprehensive information on various aspects of study in the Norway: www.studyinnorway.no
·         The Norwegian Universities and Colleges Admission Service, NUCAS (Samordna opptak): www.samordnaopptak.no/info/english
·         Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education, NOKUT):www.nokut.no/en/Foreign-education
 
Netherlands:
 
Basic Information about Netherlands
The Netherlands is located in Northwestern Europe. It is bound by the North Sea to the north and west, Germany to the east and Belgium to the south. The inland area is below sea level in some places, protected by coastal dunes and dykes. The capital of the country is Amsterdam, but The Hague is the seat of the Queen, Government and Parliament. The country has a population of 16.7 million. The official language is Dutch, while English is also widely understood and spoken.
 
The Higher Education System
Holland stands out for its great inventiveness, its problem-solving attitude and its openness to the world. Studying in Holland offers you the space to be a pioneer, be creative and get connected. The more than 1,500 English taught study programmes and courses cover a broad range of fields. All programmes and courses lead to a bachelor’s, master’s or PhD degree, a diploma or certificate. The education system in Holland is known for its high quality in education and research and its international study environment.
The Netherlands higher educational system is a dual system composed of two main types of regular higher education: Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs (WO – university education) and Hoger Beroepsonderwijs (HBO – universities of applied sciences). The universities (WO) focus on the independent practice of research-oriented work in an academic or professional setting. The universities of applied sciences (HBO) are more practically oriented, preparing students directly for specific careers. A smaller branch of education is provided by Institutes of International Education – Internationaal Onderwijs (IO), which offer programmes designed especially for foreign students. International Education is generally conducted in English.
 
Universities (WO) and universities of applied sciences (HBO) award both Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Institutes for International Education (IO) offer Master’s programmes, but no bachelor’s programmes. A bachelor’s programme at a university requires three years of full-time study (180 ECTS credits) to complete, while a bachelor’s programme offered by a university of applied sciences requires four years of full-time study (240 credits). Depending on the discipline, Master’s programmes at universities, universities of applied sciences and institutes for International Education last one to two years (60–120 ECTS credits).
 
Doctorate (PhD) degrees are only offered by research universities and last four years. PhD candidates in Holland are regarded as professional researchers rather than as students. The fact that the majority of the PhD candidates is employed, strengthens their status as professional researcher.
 
Tuition Fees and Living Costs
Depending on the programme, the tuition fees for non EU residents range from 10,000 SGD to 20,000 SGD per year for a Bachelor programme and from 13,000 SGD to 33,000 SGD per year for a Master programme. Apart from this, the living costs (inclusive of accommodation, food, transport and utilities) are estimated between SGD 1600,- to SGD 2200,- per month.
 
Scholarships
A number of funding opportunities exist and they are described on the website www.studyinholland.nl. More information can also be found on www.grantfinder.nl, an online search engine that brings together information on a range of Dutch scholarships open to international students wishing to study in Holland.
 
After your studies
Once you have finished your studies in the Netherlands and have received a Dutch diploma, you are ready to start your international career. The Dutch education system educates students to analyse and solve practical problems independently through emphasis on self-study and self-discipline. This system prepares students for their career after their studies. Stay in touch with other Holland Alumni viawww.hollandalumni.nl.
 
Poland:
 
Basic Information about Poland
Poland is situated in Central Europe. It is bound by the Baltic Sea, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Slovakia and Ukraine. The country is mostly part of the Great European Plain, while to the south, the plain rises to the Carpathian and Sudeten Mountains. There are 38.2 million inhabitants in the country. The official language is Polish. The capital of the country is Warsaw.
 
The Higher Education System
At present there are a total of 121 state higher educational institutions and not less than 210 non-state higher educational institutions in Poland, which offer a very wide range of different courses and programmes (private schools of higher education must receive permission to operate from the Ministry of National Education; they acquire a legal status when registered by the Minister of National Education). Among the higher schools, there are both university-type and non-university type (professional education) institutions. State and non-state higher professional (vocational) schools train students in professional specialisations and prepare them for specific professions by including 15-week internships and school practice in the mandatory curriculum.
 
Graduates of higher professional courses are awarded the title of Bachelor of Arts/Science or Engineer (Bachelor of Engineering) after 3 to 4 years of study. Graduates of university-type higher educational institutions are awarded the title of magister (Master of Arts/Science) or its equivalent after taking standard 5-year MA/MSc level courses or 1.5 to 2-year complementary MA/MSc level courses (intended for holders of the professional title of Bachelor of Arts/Science or Engineer received either at university-type institutions or institutions of higher professional education).
 
The academic degree of doktor (Ph.D.) is awarded to a person who has passed his/her doctoral examinations and submitted and defended a doctoral dissertation (holding the title of magister or its equivalent is a necessary condition for successively obtaining the doktor’s degree).
 
Scholarships
Persons interested in studying in Poland are welcome to contact respective Polish higher educational institutions in order to obtain detailed information on the conditions of admission and the courses and programmes which they offer to foreign students.
 
Portugal:
 
Basic Information about Portugal
Portugal is situated in the south-western extremity of Europe, occupying the western littoral of the Iberian Peninsula. The territory also includes the Azores, Madeira and Porto Santo Islands. It is bound to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The capital of the country is Lisbon. The population of the country is 10.4 million the official language is Portuguese, which is spoken by the entire population.
 
The Higher Education System
Higher education in Portugal is divided into two subsystems: university education and non-university higher education (polytechnic education), and it is provided in autonomous public universities, private universities, polytechnic institutions and private higher educational institutions of other types. The two systems of higher education are linked and it is possible to transfer from one to the other. It is also possible to transfer from a public institution to a private one and vice-versa. University institutions may award “Licenciado”, “Mestre” and “Doutor” degrees while Polytechnic institutions award 1st cycle – “Licenciado” and 2nd cycle – “Mestre” degrees.
 
Scholarships
The Portuguese agency Foundation for Science and Technology(Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior) promotes national scientific research and technological development by providing different types of grants, e.g. Master grants (MA), Doctorate grants, Post-doctorate grants, Sabbatical grants, Grants for scientific career development, Enterprise doctorate grants, Training grants at scientific and technological international organisations, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
 
Camões Institute
Acting under the oversight of Portugal’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Camões Institute (ICA) is the Portuguese institution responsible for promoting both the teaching of Portuguese language and culture at foreign higher educational establishments and Portuguese culture abroad in general. In order to pursue these objectives, within the context of a variety of cooperation programmes with foreign higher educational institutions, ICA has a range of Scholarship Programmes for Portuguese and foreign students, e.g. The Portuguese Language and Culture Summer Courses Programme, The Annual Portuguese Language and Culture Courses Programme, The Fernão Mendes Pinto Programme, Research Programme, The Pessoa Programme, The Vieira Programme, Protocol between the Camões Institute and the Eça de Queiroz Foundation, Protocol between the Camões Institute and the National Cultural Centre (CNC). The rules and deadlines for applications will be published each year on the Camões Institute’s website: www.instituto-camoes.pt.
 
Romania:
 
Basic Information about Romania
Romania lies in the Eastern wing of the European Union. With a population of 21 million, it is one of the medium-sized countries of Europe. Romania borders Hungary, Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, is placed on the lower Danube and shares part of the Black Sea coast. The capital is Bucharest, which has a population of over 2 million inhabitants. The official language is Romanian but Media is publishing also in Hungarian, German, and English.
"Study in Romania" Programme
 
The Romanian higher education system is organised on three undergraduate and post-graduate levels:
·         1st cycle (licenta) corresponding to bachelor degree,
·         2nd cycle (master) corresponding to master’s degree,
·         3rd cycle (doctorate) corresponding to doctor’s degree.
Romanian higher education is managed by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports (MECTS, www.edu.ro).
 
The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through the Division of Cultural, Educational and Scientific Relations, cooperates with MECTS to facilitate educational exchanges and ensure foreign citizens the possibility to study in Romania.
Foreign Citizen can study in Romania:
1.    On their own expenses, at state or private universities in Romania (lists on www.edu.ro), with a supplementary preparatory year for learning the language (if the candidate does not speak Romanian already), or in foreign languages(if the respective university offers this option. Check opportunities for studying in English, French, German in theForeign Student’s Guide on www.mae.ro at "Study in Romania".
2.    On scholarships offered by the Romanian state:
The scholarships offered by the Romanian state in keeping with bilateral treaties in force or with unilateral offers made by Romania to other states are managed by the MECTS through its Department for International and European Relations, based on proposals from the relevant authorities of the candidate’s country of origin (http://www.edu.ro/index.php/articles/c784/).
3.    Based on European university cooperation and mobility programmes:
o    ERASMUS MUNDUS
o    CEEPUS
o    TEMPUS
o    ASIA
 
Slovakia:
 
Basic Information about Slovakia
The Slovak Republic (Slovakia) has been established on 1 January 1993 as one of the successors to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. It is a parliamentary democracy, and its Constitution guarantees equal rights for all citizens regardless of sex, race, color, language, faith, religion, political affiliation or conviction, national or social origin, nationality or ethnic origin, property, birth or any other status.
 
The Slovak Republic is situated in Central Europe, sharing borders with Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine and Hungary. Mountains, lowlands, valleys, lakes, cave formations, forests and meadows provide many examples of Slovakia’s year-round natural beauty. The Carpathian Arc, a range of mountains stretching across the north, takes up almost a half of the country. The south and east of the country lie in the lowlands, an important agricultural area in Slovakia.
 
Official name: Slovak Republic
Area: 49,035 km² Population: 5.4 million
Capital: Bratislava (431,061 inhabitants) 
Official language: Slovak
Currency: euro (since 1 January 2009)
Membership in international organizations: EU (2004), NATO (2004), UN, OECD, OSCE, WHO, INTERPOL etc.
 
The Higher Education System
Based on founding and funding there are 3 types of Higher education institutions (HEI):
1.    Public Higher Education Institutions
Public institutions of higher education are established by law. They are financed mostly by the government. They are statutory and self-governing institutions. At present, there are 20 public institutions of higher education, comprising 9 more or less traditional universities, 5 universities of technology, 3 higher education institutions of art and music, 1 university of economics, 1 university of veterinary medicine and 1 agricultural university.
1.    State Higher Education Institutions 
State institutions of higher education (3 HEIs) are military, police and medical schools. They are established by law and governed by state through the corresponding ministries of the government. The state HEIs are fully financed from the state budget.
1.    Private Higher Education Institutions
Private institutions of higher education (10 HEIs) need to have the state approval issued by the Government of the Slovak Republic. They are established and financed by non governmental institutions or founders. Most of the private higher education institutions provide education on bachelor level only, specialised in the fields of economics, business, management, public administration, law, international relations, regional development, medical and social work.
 
Higher education institutions provide the study programmes at three levels:
1.    Bachelor’s study programme takes three years at least and four years at most (architecture, fine art and design).
2.    Magister study programme takes one year at least and four years at most so the standard length of study according to the Bachelor study programme and the continuing programme of the second level in the same or relative field of study represents five years at least in total. It may be also carried out as a continuous study connecting the first and second level of higher education (in this case the standard length of study is four years at least and six years at most).
3.    Phd. study programme takes in full-time form three years at least and four years at most, in part-time five years.
 
Academic Year 
Academic year starts on 1 September of the current year and ends on 31 August of the following year. It is composed of 2 semesters (winter semester lasts from September to January and summer semester lasts from February to June). The organisation of academic year is set by the statute of the faculty or statute of the higher education institution.
 
Teaching Process and ECTS 
The teaching process includes various forms of instruction such as lectures, seminars, exercises, laboratory work, projects, practical training, consultations, etc. The credit system following the rules of the European Credit and Accumulation Transfer System (ECTS) was introduced in 2002 for all levels and forms of higher education study. The student‘s standard load is expressed by the number of credits: 60 credits per academic year, 30 credits per semester and 20 credits for trimester. The institution of higher education determines the total number of credits required for the due completion of the study in its respective stages.
 
Higher education institutions award following academic degrees:
1st level (comprising app. 180 credits)
·         “bakalár“ (abbr. “Bc.”).
2nd level (comprising app. 120 credits)
·         “magister” (abbr. “Mgr.”)
·         “magister umenia” (abbr. “Mgr. art.”) in the field of art
·         “inžinier” (abbr. “Ing.”) in technical, agricultural and economic fields of Engineer’s programmes
·         “inžinier architekt” (abbr. “Ing. arch.”) in the field of architecture and town-planning
·         “doktor všeobecného lekárstva” (abbr. “MUDr.”) in the field of general humane medicine
·         “doktor zubného lekárstva” (abbr. “MDDr.”) dentist humane medicine
·         “doktor veterinárneho lekárstva” (abbr. “MVDr.”) in the field of veterinary medicine.
3rd level
·         “philosophiae doctor” (abbr. “PhD.”)
·         “artis doctor“ (abbr. “ArtD.”) in the field of art.
 
Scholarships
1.    Scholarships of the Government of the Slovak Republic Awarded for the Entire Master or Doctoral Study within Official Development Assistance 
The Slovak Republic Government annually awards scholarships for master and doctoral study to students from the countries eligible for Official Development Assistance (ODA). 
1.    The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic for the Support of Mobility of Students, PhD Students, University Teachers and Researchers
Establishment of the National Scholarship Programme for the Support of Mobility of Students, PhD Students, University Teachers and Researchers was approved by the Government of the Slovak Republic in 2005. The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic is funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic. The National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic is intended to support mobility of foreign students, PhD students, university teachers and researchers to stay at Slovak universities and research institutions. 
2.    Scholarships of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic
The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic offers scholarships for study stay within accredited study/doctoral programmes or academic stay at public universities or institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences for:
·         foreign university students for 5 month stays 
(age between 18—26 years);
·         foreign PhD students for 5 month stays
(age between 23—35 years);
·         foreign academics for 3 month stays 
(age between 30—50 years).
 
Slovenia:
 
Basic Information about Slovenia
Slovenia is a country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. Because Slovenia lies at the crossroads of the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pannonian Plain and the Dinaric Mountain Range, through the centuries, the individual Slovenian regions have developed various forms of economic activity, ways of life and cultural creativity. Slovenia has a population of 2 million people and the official language is Slovene. The capital of the country is Ljubljana, it is the largest city as well as the political, administrative, economic, educational and cultural centre of Slovenia.
The Higher Education System
Over the last fifteen years higher education in Slovenia has undergone several legislative and structural changes, rapid institutional development and a significant increase in student numbers.
The higher education reform in 2004 introduced a three-cycle structure according to the Bologna process guidelines. The first cycle has a binary system of academic and professional study programmes leading to the first cycle degree (180-240 ECTS, 3-4 years). The second-cycle offers masters courses (60-120 ECTS, 1-2 years). The third-cycle comprises doctoral studies (180 ECTS, 3 years).
Higher education institutions are universities, faculties, at academies and professional colleges. There are fifteen higher education institutions which cover all fields of study: three public universities (incorporating forty-one faculties, three art academies and four professional colleges) and twelve private higher education institutions (one university, five faculties and six professional colleges). Under certain conditions, private higher education institutions can also offer state recognised and co-financed courses.
The academic year begins in October and lasts until the end of September in the following year. It is divided into two semesters: the winter semester usually runs from October to January and the summer semester from February to the middle of July.
 
Scholarships
In Slovenia, the CMEPIUS-Centre of the Republic of Slovenia for Mobility and European Programmes is the organisation managing scholarships awarded by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia. Another source is Ad futura – Scientific and Educational Foundation of the Republic of Slovenia – it is a public foundation which provides various types of financial support.
 
Ad futura
Ad futura – Scientific and Educational Foundation of the Republic of Slovenia was established by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia with the aim of providing opportunities for the international mobility of students and researchers. Ad futura manages scholarships, study loans for tuition, living expenses or other costs. The specific rules are given in each call for applications.
 
Courses of Slovene as a Second/Foreign Language
The Centre for Slovene as a Second/Foreign Language promotes the understanding of the Slovene language, literature and culture on an international scale. The scholarships are mostly for lectureship in the Slovenian languages. For more information, see www.centerslo.net.
 
Spain:
 
Basic Information about Spain
Spain is situated on the Iberian Peninsula in South-West Europe. Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa that border Morocco (Ceuta and Melilla). Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe and is one of the main tourist destinations worldwide. It has a population of 45 million people.
 
The landscape is extraordinarily varied, ranging from desert-like areas to lush, green pastures where mountains, valleys, rivers and beaches produce a wide variety of microclimates, which also contribute to its extraordinary beauty. Spain experiences all four seasons and has a generally temperate climate. Its location makes it one of the warmest countries in Europe and winter temperatures are generally mild.
 
Spain's unique culture is the product of a heritage enriched by the many external influences which it has been subjected to over the course of its long history. The geographic location of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural bridge between the cultures of the north and south of Europe, America, Africa and the East. History has made it a meeting point for many different cultures, creating a rich and diverse cultural legacy in which an intense past is evident.
 
Spanish is the mother tongue of over 400 million people around the world and is the official language of 20 countries. Sharing a common language has, without doubt, made Spain a particularly attractive destination for Latin American and Hispanic and Spanish-speaking students from the United States. Spain is also one of the most popular destinations for learning Spanish as a foreign language, particularly in the case of English speakers from the United States and Asia who want to learn Spanish, and students from other European Union countries. Indeed, Spain is the first destination in Europe for ERASMUS students (main students exchange European programme).
 
The Higher Education System
Spain's education system offers a wide range of college and university studies at all levels, as well as internationally renowned business studies at prestigious schools, and the best opportunities for the studying of Spanish as a foreign language, with a great variety of courses to choose from.
Higher education is mainly provided by both public and private universities. Spain is part of the Bologna Process, a Europe-wide co-operation to harmonize higher education in Europe. The new structure creates three levels of higher education.
First level: Undergraduate studies (Graduado) – 4 years, 240 ECTS
Second level: Master's studies – 1 or 2 years, 60 to 120 ECTS
Third level: PhD programs or Doctorate – 3 to 5 years
The academic calendar in Spanish universities begins in October and ends in June. Examinations are held at the end of the first semester, in February, and at the end of the second semester, in June. However, there are some variations between universities.
 
Scholarships
Spain offers a great variety of scholarship programmes to foreign students and specialists. Among the most important ones are the scholarship programmes of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación) through the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional) – Programas de Becas MAEC-AECID. Other ministries and administrative and territorial entities (Autonomous Communities, local organisms, etc.) or private companies also offer programmes.
 
Sweden:
 
Basic Information about Sweden
Sweden is a European country located on the east side of the Scandinavian Peninsula in North Europe. The population is nine million inhabitants, of which almost two million live in and around the capital, Stockholm. For a sparsely populated country in the far north of Europe, Sweden has done remarkably well in establishing and maintaining an outstanding reputation abroad, based on many and varied commercial, technological, cultural and political achievements. Despite its natural riches, Sweden is a country built on people. Today, knowledge is Sweden's prime asset, with education kept in the public domain and developed to a standard that ranks consistently among the highest in OECD statistics.
 
The Higher Education System
In Sweden there are 14 public universities and 21 public university colleges as well as a number of independent institutions of higher education. The Swedish higher education institutions have a degree structure that conforms to the Bologna Process; a Europe-wide standardization drive for higher education. There are three levels of higher education, each with minimum requirements for entry: a first level (Undergraduate studies), second level (Master's studies) and third level (Licentiate and PhD degrees).
The PhD programs are fully funded but require certain prerequisites. A requirement for studies at the third level is possession of a second-level degree — a Degree of Master (Two Years) or a Degree of Master (One Year) — or the completion of four years of full-time studies — three at the first level and at least one year at the second level. Comparable international degrees are also admissible, and specialized knowledge may suffice as well.
 
Tuition fees and living costs
Tuition fees apply only to bachelor’s and master’s programs and courses, while PhD programs are fully funded.
Universities set their own fees, and these vary between approximately SGD 15,000-27,000 per academic year for most subjects. However, programs in the fields of medicine and art have notably higher fees. The fee for the www.universityadmissions.se application to Swedish universities and colleges for fee paying students has been set to SEK 900, approximately SGD 171.
As for the living costs, students will need approximately SGD 1,385 per month for ten months of the year. This is a requirement for acquiring a residence permit.
Check www.studyinsweden.se for up-to-date information.
 
Scholarships
Scholarships and fee waivers are sometimes available through the universities of which some are funded by industry. Check with the university you intend to study at. Some programs may also have specific scholarships connected only to the program or the subject area.
Other organizations, both Swedish and foreign, also sponsor scholarships for foreign students in Sweden.
 
The Ford Foundation's International Fellowships Program (IFP)funds graduate studies
 
United Kingdom:
 
Basic Information about United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is a country and sovereign state situated off the northwest coast of Europe.
The United Kingdom is a political union made up of four constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales (Great Britain) and Northern Ireland. The capital city is London. The two official languages in Britain are English and Welsh, English being the most widely spoken. Scottish Gaelic is also spoken in some parts of Scotland. The United Kingdom has a highly industrialized economy and the seventh-largest gross domestic product in the world. It is the third most populous state in the European Union.
 
The Higher Education System
Undergraduate study
Degrees are the most popular undergraduate qualification in the UK. They are academic courses, usually studied over three years in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, or four years in Scotland (where the title master's degree may be awarded).
University International Foundation Year courses help to bridge any gaps between qualifications already held and the ones needed to begin a degree course at a UK university.
 
Postgraduate study
Pre-master's courses can last from one term to a complete academic year and cover academic study, cultural instruction and language training. Many courses will guarantee progression onto a master's course at a particular university.
Postgraduate certificate or diplomas (PG Cert/Dip) are one-year taught postgraduate courses that don't usually involve research. They're often accepted as professional qualifications in the relevant field, such as education or management, giving you a fantastic head start in your chosen career.
Taught master's (MA, MSc, LLM, MEd etc) courses generally last for one year and consist of two elements: you'll complete a number of modules and produce a dissertation from original research.
 
Research master's (MRes, MPhil) is a master's degree by research. You will devote the entire year to research. Your final mark will be determined by the quality of your dissertation.
 
Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a specialist business taught master's course. It's the best-known and most popular postgraduate qualification.
 
Doctorate (PhD) will take you three to four years to complete, during which you'll be working on a single research project.
 
New Route PhDs include taught elements as well as a research project and give you the opportunity to undertake interdisciplinary study.
 
Scholarships
There is a wide range of scholarships available for international students to study in the UK, ranging from school education to PhD study. Key scholarships and sources of information follow.
British Chevening Scholarships administered by the British Council for students studying for a Postgraduate Diploma or a Master’s degree. Further information can be obtained from the British Council.
 
Switzerland:
 
Basic Information about Switzerland
 
Switzerland is a small country located in the heart of Western Europe, and sharing borders with neighboring Germany, Austria, the Principality of Liechtenstein, Italy and France. There are now approximately 7.7 million people living in Switzerland, speaking four official languages: German, French, Italian and Romansh.
 
A mountainous landscape: 60% of the Swiss territory is occupied by the Alps, a great mountain range stretching circa one thousand kilometers from Austria to France, that offer more than 80 peaks above 4000 meters.
 
A prosperous economy: nowadays Switzerland enjoys the most competitive economies in the world (1st on the WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012), which relies mainly on the third sector. Large multinational corporations such as Nestlé, Novartis and ABB have their headquarters in Switzerland. High-quality performance and well-trained, reliable employees, as well as the concentration of high-quality niche products are at the heart of the Swiss economy. The key areas for Swiss exports are high-technology in general including pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, micro and nanotechnology, environmental technologies, as well as finance, design, luxury and hospitality.
 
Environment and quality of life: a well-preserved environment easily accessible by public transport, safe cities, and excellent infrastructures make living in Switzerland very pleasant, and explain why the Global Ranking of Cities with a High Quality of Life ranks three Swiss cities among the top ten (Mercer's 2011 Quality of Living Survey).
 
The Higher Education System
 
Switzerland offers a very dynamic, conducive and competitive education and research landscape, as testified by 27 Nobel Prize winners from 1901 to 2002. The first Swiss University was founded in 1460 in Basel and today the country offers outstanding higher education in the 10 cantonal universities and the 2 Federal Institutes of Technology, in the more professionally-oriented universities of applied sciences and in the universities of teacher education. There are also a few more University-level institutions that are considered public institutions of higher education.
 
High diversity of cultures and languages, open access to students, very low student fees, highly international student cohorts and staff, as well as access to international networks and programs and tight links to academic research and industry, are the major strengths of the Swiss Higher Education System.
 
The Bachelor degree
 
The Bachelor's degree is a pre-requisite for enrollment in a Master's programme. The program is done in 3 years and comprises 180 Credits (in the Bologna system, one academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS - European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System). All Bachelor programmes are open to students in possession of a valid secondary school diploma, a Swiss school-leaving certificate, or a foreign degree that has been deemed equivalent.
 
The Master degree
 
The prerequisite for access to a Master's programme is a successfully completed Bachelor's programme. It takes in general 2 years (sometimes 1,5 years) and comprises 120 Credits ECTS. In this second cycle of studies, the student will further advance his or her knowledge and specialize in a particular field, or acquire an interdisciplinary formation. This programme is completed with the writing of a master's thesis.
 
The research doctorate degree (PhD)
 
A doctorate is an academic degree of the highest level. Research doctorate degrees are generally awarded after 3-5 years of postgraduate research and study, and submission of a thesis. Professional doctorates are awarded in the professional disciplines of, for example, law or medicine. A Master's degree - and a high grade average attained during the Master's studies - are the main pre-requisites for admittance to a doctoral programme. In Switzerland, only the twelve state-run university institutions of academic learning (10 cantonal universities, plus 2 Federal Institutes of Technology) are allowed to award doctoral degrees.
 
Most courses are taught in German, French or Italian at Bachelor level. More courses are taught in English at Master and PhD level.
 
Tuition fees and living costs
 
Due to the national commitment to education and the generous funding from federal and cantonal governments, tuition fees at Swiss universities are relatively low: depending on the Universities and program chosen, they cost on general around 1’300 Swiss Francs (SGD 1’800.-) per year. An estimate of 1’500-2’000 Swiss Francs (SGD 2’000-2’800) per month will cover the livings costs (food, accommodation, etc.) depending on the location of the university and personal demands.
 
Scholarships
 
The Swiss Government offers scholarships to foreign students and artists on the basis of reciprocity or within the framework of a scholarship pool to several countries. Scholarships are granted to postgraduate candidates or researchers from both industrial and development countries. See Federal Commission for Scholarships for International Students.
 

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